Common sight problems and how to prevent them:
It’s easy to take your eyesight for granted – until something happens to threaten it. This throws the importance of your sight into sharp relief. Here, we explains the five most common conditions affecting your sight and give tips as to how to prevent early deterioration of your eyesight.
Light rays from objects in view must pass through the lens in your eye to reach your retina’s light-sensing cells. When a cataract clouds the lens, your vision fogs and lights get a halo, you may also noticed multiple images of lights and or the moon.
Tips for prevention: Protect your eyes with lenses that block both UVA and UVB light, e.g. lenses from Zeiss, and avoid smoking. It’s important to control your blood pressure, watch your weight and manage diabetes as well.
Diabetic eye changes:
Your retina transforms light into signals your brain can process. Diabetes can change the back of the eye, e.g. make blood vessels leak and or grow, causing blurring, flashes, floaters, pain and vision loss.
Tips for prevention: Get yearly eye tests to detect diabetic eye problems early, which can prevent or slow vision loss. Controlling your blood glucose and blood pressure is also key.
You rely on light-sensing cones in the macula, the center of your retina, for what is called central vision. In age-related macular degeneration (AMD), tissue breakdown or blood vessel growth in the macula makes it hard to see faces, read, drive and generally causes a loss of the most important central vision.
Tips for prevention: Avoid smoking, which doubles your risk of macular degeneration as you age. Get regular exercise, control your blood pressure and cholesterol. Also, eat lots of leafy greens and fish. Macular supplements may also be advisable.
The right amount of fluid must fill the space within your eye. Pressure from too much fluid damages the optic nerve, which then painlessly damages your peripheral and eventually your central vision.
Tip for prevention of glaucoma: Have regular eye pressure tests and examination of the optic disc in order to avoid losing your vision from Glaucoma.
Refractive prescription changes:
Your eye, cornea and lens must be shaped just right for light rays to bend (refract) and focus on your retina to create a sharp image that is then transmitted to the visual cortex at the back of the brain. If this process doesn’t happen, the vision is blurred.
In refractive prescription chages, light rays do not bend correctly and do not focus where they should in the eye. Refractive errors include:
- Nearsightedness (myopia): Light rays focusses in front of your retina.
- Farsightedness (hyperopia):
- Light rays focusses in behind your retina.
- Astigmatism: Light rays focus unevenly on your retina’s surface.
- Age-related difficulty focusing up close (presbyopia): Light rays focus behind the the retina when viewing near objects, making reading and other close work a challenge.
Tip for correction: Have regular eye test as recommended by your optometrist.